Glossary: L

LAN
Acronym for Local Area Network.
LBS
Short for Location Based Service.
LED
Acronym for Light-emitting diode.
LLN
Short for Low power and Lossy Networks.
LPWA
Short for Low-Power, Wide-Area.
LPWAN
Short for Low-Power, Wide-Area Network.
LTE
Abbreviation for Long Term Evolution.
LTE Machine-Type Communications
Refers to all uses of LTE for M2M and IoT, or the evolution of MTC features in LTE. 
LTE-M
Stands for LTE Machine-Type Communications.
LTE-U
Short for LTE-Unlicensed.
LTE-Unlicensed
First proposed by Qualcomm and Ericsson, LTE-U uses 4G LTE wireless technology in unlicensed spectrum. 
Ledger of Things
A variation of the term Chain of Things.
Level 0 Automated Vehicle
The "no-automation" baseline of the 5-level NHTSA vehicle classification system. 
Level 1 Automated Vehicle
Function-specific Automation is the second level of the 5-level NHTSA vehicle classification system. 
Level 2 Automated Vehicle
Combined Function Automation is the third level of the 5-level NHTSA vehicle classification system. 
Level 3 Automated Vehicle
Limited Self-Driving Automation is the fourth level of the 5-level NHTSA vehicle classification system. 
Level 4 Automated Vehicle
Full Self-Driving Automation is the fifth and highest level of the 5-level NHTSA vehicle classification system. 
LiFi
Short for Light Fidelity.
Lidar
A portmanteau of "light" and "radar," which stands for Light Detection and Ranging, Lidar is a laser-based measuring system for range finding and mapping. 
Light Fidelity
A wireless communication technology that uses visible light communication (VLC) rather than radio waves. 
Light-emitting diode
A semiconductor that generates light via electroluminescence. 
Lights Out Manufacturing
A term describing manufacturing facilities that can run with the lights off since no humans are present on the factory floor. 
LoRaWAN
Standardized by the LoRa Alliance, the LoRaWAN specification allows low bit rate communication between connected objects in a wide area network (WAN). 
Local Area Network
A network of devices in relatively close proximity, prior to the point of transmission over leased telecommunication lines. 
Location Based Service
Computer applications and services that employ location data as inputs. 
Long Term Evolution / 4G
LTE, often referred to as 4G, is the standard adopted for public safety broadband communications by the FCC. 
Low power and Lossy Networks
A LLN is comprised of embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources. 
Low-Power, Wide-Area Network
Non-cellular, M2M networks that rely on low data rates and primarly on unlicensed frequencies to transmit data with minimal energy usage. 

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